开启 OCSP Stapling

前言

昨天更新了博客,全站开启 HTTP/2 模式。基本设置完了以后,又发现了一些好玩的,今天这个算是补充说明吧。

介绍

先说说 OCSP 是个什么东东,其全名是 Online Certificate Status Protocol,简单说,就是一个可以检测 SSL 证书是否有效的在线证书状态查询协议。有些客户端在访问的时候,会通过 CA 提供的 OCSP URL 去查询证书的有效性,而这个过程实际上是一个阻断式的 HTTP 请求。客户端完成诸如 DNS 查询、TCP 链接建立、HTTP 请求、验证证书等操作后,用户可以开始正常浏览网站,而这中间可能会耗时很长,尤其是在中国这种奇葩的网络状况下,访问海外 CA 提供的 OCSP URL 更是如此。

而 OCSP Stapling 其实是服务器先去 CA 指定的 OCSP URL 获取 OCSP 查询结果,并将结果直接发送给客户端,免去客户端再去 CA 服务器验证的动作,从而提升访问时的连接速度和用户体验,说白了都是为了加速一丢丢。

OCSP 状态查询

先查看一下未修改 Nginx 配置之前的查询结果:

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$ openssl s_client -connect tommy.net.cn:443 -servername tommy.net.cn -status -tlsextdebug < /dev/null 2>&1 | grep -i "OCSP response"
OCSP response: no response sent

嗯,妥妥的,no response sent,表示服务器没有开启 OCSP 支持。下面是重新修改和配置好 Nginx 以后的 OCSP 查询结果:

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$  openssl s_client -connect tommy.net.cn:443 -servername tommy.net.cn -status -tlsextdebug < /dev/null 2>&1 | grep -i "OCSP response"
OCSP response:
OCSP Response Data:
OCSP Response Status: successful (0x0)
Response Type: Basic OCSP Response

可以看到 OCSP 查询验证成功。

验证 OCSP Response

在配置 Nginx 配置文件之前,我们需要先在命令行验证一下,得到正确的 OCSP Response 先,首先是获得 OCSP URL:

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$ openssl x509 -in cert.pem -ocsp_uri -noout
http://ocsp.startssl.com

嗯,一看就暴露了我使用 StartSSL 的事实,接下来验证 OCSP Response,证书签发用的是 StartSSL 的 Intermediate DV1 证书,cert.pem 是服务器证书:

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$ openssl ocsp -issuer intermediate.pem -cert cert.pem -no_nonce -text -url http://ocsp.startssl.com
OCSP Request Data:
Version: 1 (0x0)
Requestor List:
Certificate ID:
Hash Algorithm: sha1
Issuer Name Hash: 5168159AB1999B3A55E860C022C9D519E0303D29
Issuer Key Hash: D7914E01C4B0BFF8C86793449CE733FAAD930CAF
Serial Number: 560E798B0AA4C055417AAB147A96F207
OCSP Response Data:
OCSP Response Status: successful (0x0)
Response Type: Basic OCSP Response
Version: 1 (0x0)
Responder Id: C = IL, O = StartCom Ltd., OU = StartCom Certification Authority, CN = StartCom Class 1 DV Server CA OCSP Responder
Produced At: Jul 25 10:07:29 2016 GMT
Responses:
Certificate ID:
Hash Algorithm: sha1
Issuer Name Hash: 5168159AB1999B3A55E860C022C9D519E0303D29
Issuer Key Hash: D7914E01C4B0BFF8C86793449CE733FAAD930CAF
Serial Number: 560E798B0AA4C055417AAB147A96F207
Cert Status: good
This Update: Jul 25 10:07:29 2016 GMT
Next Update: Jul 29 10:17:29 2016 GMT

Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
81:18:0b:fc:7e:3f:db:19:7d:c5:35:fa:8d:12:5a:5d:5b:24:
ea:2c:fe:69:c1:55:08:f7:8b:8b:51:f7:74:39:fa:43:dc:02:
7f:5e:b0:eb:d8:68:b4:4b:3e:a6:5c:55:d2:19:1e:84:66:86:
7d:e1:98:77:4c:6a:e1:61:a1:3b:08:a2:55:76:9e:79:8f:1c:
4f:d7:12:e1:75:92:9d:aa:85:0b:b5:bf:18:4d:e4:ba:bc:8a:
9c:35:4c:f4:46:f0:44:a5:fd:82:96:4e:7c:f2:56:95:d3:9b:
b5:47:98:6f:b1:47:3f:64:f3:4c:e0:71:f2:5c:df:71:80:8a:
05:b6:82:cf:ec:5a:86:53:55:9e:33:e1:1b:8b:44:ca:7f:5e:
24:a7:40:2b:fc:a2:9e:be:cb:a8:a1:ed:f0:45:3f:95:50:e8:
4e:0a:28:0a:0a:5a:68:75:cc:c7:17:57:67:93:3b:01:b1:40:
12:ef:c0:70:23:24:68:d2:28:34:65:68:4d:ac:98:05:e6:4b:
fb:09:b4:c7:46:0f:0d:b2:57:61:78:2e:f3:75:c5:48:1b:8a:
65:8e:5e:ff:40:cb:20:87:a1:c5:a7:c9:6d:c3:5f:63:db:9d:
c4:28:b0:9c:f8:14:70:dd:b5:0a:75:47:a1:2b:57:49:f3:cf:
41:cc:c0:cf
Certificate:
Data:
Version: 3 (0x2)
Serial Number:
24:dd:c9:af:57:42:41:b8:ca:bc:8d:bf:96:9e:82:dc
Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
Issuer: C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=StartCom Certification Authority, CN=StartCom Class 1 DV Server CA
Validity
Not Before: Jun 10 01:59:42 2016 GMT
Not After : Sep 28 01:59:42 2016 GMT
Subject: C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=StartCom Certification Authority, CN=StartCom Class 1 DV Server CA OCSP Responder
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
Public-Key: (2048 bit)
Modulus:
00:ef:a0:56:07:82:f3:21:f8:a3:58:ca:7d:ef:f0:
51:f8:f0:67:4b:23:56:cb:d2:f5:5e:55:fa:d9:ef:
37:e2:c4:02:07:ba:a9:b2:d7:b3:67:bb:5e:fd:2f:
fd:a9:4d:80:94:1d:a4:7c:5f:5f:d4:fb:d5:c7:c8:
07:61:8a:4f:d5:6f:95:8b:43:33:78:f2:87:d6:a4:
43:c7:57:b9:fe:ea:2f:88:83:69:0b:25:6a:ba:67:
ad:03:ec:59:1a:9b:f9:2a:74:22:9e:44:aa:77:f6:
1f:15:94:22:9e:63:86:4c:00:3b:f3:fd:7c:6b:70:
f7:f5:17:32:c9:d1:96:46:80:86:be:9b:d2:7c:13:
db:3f:dd:2d:7f:cf:3f:9a:31:d1:35:b4:d8:ac:db:
6d:1f:87:10:ec:f7:98:b1:88:27:44:6d:4a:7a:91:
29:be:0f:bc:7f:33:d9:ac:ea:b2:f0:a6:eb:58:cb:
e6:29:05:6b:74:57:0b:d3:4b:3a:94:05:53:56:9c:
07:e4:53:5d:19:1d:42:04:76:78:b1:4a:d7:b2:99:
25:97:64:3b:51:5d:f3:f0:7d:c1:d8:f0:89:f8:b0:
4a:2c:37:df:b2:2a:e3:fa:dc:3a:f0:ec:fb:c3:a7:
74:7e:f5:3a:07:77:93:b3:42:1b:59:34:48:10:9a:
a7:6b
Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
X509v3 extensions:
X509v3 Key Usage: critical
Digital Signature, Key Encipherment, Key Agreement
X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
OCSP Signing
OCSP No Check:

X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
CA:FALSE
X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
17:47:77:8E:AD:70:4C:F6:0C:E0:2F:9B:9E:86:38:54:9B:C2:15:18
X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
keyid:D7:91:4E:01:C4:B0:BF:F8:C8:67:93:44:9C:E7:33:FA:AD:93:0C:AF

Authority Information Access:
OCSP - URI:http://ocsp.startssl.com
CA Issuers - URI:http://aia.startssl.com/certs/sca.server1.crt

X509v3 CRL Distribution Points:

Full Name:
URI:http://crl.startssl.com/sca-server1.crl

Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
69:67:fa:4f:23:91:f0:56:61:b2:88:09:b4:eb:cd:d0:e7:f4:
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c8:1d:e7:02:71:82:60:28:c4:7f:1e:6f:95:c1:53:8b:f1:7e:
2a:46:ce:81:c6:18:e3:0b:e4:e7:df:aa:60:b0:80:10:60:86:
20:31:88:f5:46:8d:ba:d9:f9:7e:ed:1f:b3:16:ca:ba:ff:4f:
13:d3:9a:94
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Response Verify Failure
139666926626464:error:27069065:OCSP routines:OCSP_basic_verify:certificate verify error:ocsp_vfy.c:126:Verify error:unable to get local issuer certificate
cert.pem: good
This Update: Jul 25 10:07:29 2016 GMT
Next Update: Jul 29 10:17:29 2016 GMT

可以看到证书验证成功,但是 Response Verify Failure,主要原因是无法找到本地证书签发者,其实这个指定 CA 证书便可,需要注意的是,这个 CA 证书必须是 CA Chained 证书,即包含 CA 和 Intermediate 的证书,这些证书根据不同的公司会有所不同,需要根据自己的情况实际调整。

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$ openssl ocsp -CAfile chained.pem -issuer intermediate.pem -cert cert.pem -no_nonce -text -url http://ocsp.startssl.com
OCSP Request Data:

...

Response verify OK
cert.pem: good
This Update: Jul 25 06:14:54 2016 GMT
Next Update: Jul 29 06:24:54 2016 GMT

简化了中间结果,可以看到 OCSP 查询结果已经变成了 Response verify OK,表示一起都冇问题了。

配置 Nginx

其实,配置 Nginx 可以作弊,比如说使用 Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator,可以快速地按照需要生成各类常用 Web Server 的配置文件。我配置的时候,选择的配置如下:

  • Nginx
  • Intermediate
  • Server version: 1.9.5
  • OpenSSL Version: 1.0.2
  • HSTS Enabled

最后的配置结果如下:

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server {
listen 80 default_server;
listen [::]:80 default_server;

# Redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS with a 301 Moved Permanently response.
return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {
listen 443 ssl http2;
listen [::]:443 ssl http2;

# certs sent to the client in SERVER HELLO are concatenated in ssl_certificate
ssl_certificate /path/to/cert.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /path/to/key.pem;
ssl_session_timeout 1d;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
ssl_session_tickets off;

# Diffie-Hellman parameter for DHE ciphersuites, recommended 2048 bits
ssl_dhparam /path/to/dhparam.pem;

# intermediate configuration. tweak to your needs.
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers 'ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS';
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

# HSTS (ngx_http_headers_module is required) (15768000 seconds = 6 months)
add_header Strict-Transport-Security max-age=15768000;

# OCSP Stapling ---
# fetch OCSP records from URL in ssl_certificate and cache them
ssl_stapling on;
ssl_stapling_verify on;

## verify chain of trust of OCSP response using Root CA and Intermediate certs
ssl_trusted_certificate /path/to/chained.pem;

resolver 8.8.8.8;

....
}

几个地方修改一下便可,cert.pem 是服务器证书,key.pem 是服务器私钥,chained.pem 是包含 CA 和 Intermediate 的证书。配置好后,重启服务器,再查询一下便发现 OCSP Stapling 已经生效了。注意,第一次请求的时候,服务器要去 CA OCSP URL 获取 OCSP Response,所以会提示没有 OCSP 查询结果,多运行一次就可以了。

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$ openssl s_client -connect tommy.net.cn:443 -servername tommy.net.cn -status -tlsextdebug < /dev/null 2>&1 | grep -i "OCSP response"
OCSP response:
OCSP Response Data:
OCSP Response Status: successful (0x0)
Response Type: Basic OCSP Response

补充说明

除了用命令行以为,还有个不错的网站可以用来检测服务器证书配置情况,那就是 SSL LABS 了。比如说,要检测当前网站的配置情况点击这里就可以了,效果还是蛮不错的,还可以看到不同平台不同浏览器的兼容情况,下面是本站的检测评分:

参考文献

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